Albert III. the Resolute
(* 31.07.1443 in Grimma, †12.09.1500inEmden),
Albert governed first together with his brother Ernest, than received in the Division of Leipzig the northern part of Thuringia, the Mark of Meissen and the area around Leipzig. The title duke was entitled to it. His residence became Dresden.
George the Bearded
(* 1471, † 17.04.1539 in Dresden),
The strictly catholic duke received his surname "the Bearded" for the impressing beard, he grew as a sign of grief over the death of his wife.
Henry the Pious
(* 16.03.1473, † 18.08.1541 in Dresden ),
his gouvernment begans in the age of 66 years. The brother of George was Protestant contrary to this. Protestantism became thereby in Saxony state religion.
(* 1521, † 11.07.1553 near Sievershausen ),
betrayed the Schmalkaldic Leaguen and supported the catholic emperor. He fought for Charles in the Schmalkaldic War and after the battle of Mühlberg (1547) received the lands and title of his cousin, Elector John Frederick I of Saxony, ruler of the Ernestine portion of Saxony. Later he changed the party and turned against the emperor. In the war that followed Maurice captured Charles near Innsbruck. He forced Charles to free John Frederick I of Saxony and Philip of Hesse and to conclude (1552) the Treaty of Passau. The Reformation in Germany was saved.
Albrecht of Kulmbach did not adhere to the land peace, so Maurice of Saxony pulled with an army against him. After embittered combat the Mark count was struck. However, Maurice was met by a ball and died at the 11.7.1553, only 31 years old.
(* 31.07.1526, † 11.02.1586 in Dresden),
followed his brother Maurice at the throne. He intelligently removed the territorial state, created political-militarily by Maurice, promoted the agriculture and put the foundation for the scientific and art collections of the Dresden yard. Saxony experienced an economical and social bloom.
(* 29.10.1560, † 25.09.1591 in Dresden ),
was less interested in the politics. He had a weak character and left the ruling of the principality to his chancellor.
(* 1583, † 23.06.1611 in Dresden ),
followed his father in his preference for hunting, tournaments and jousting. After one of his extravagant parties he died at the age of 28 years.
John George I.
(* 15.03.1585, † 08.10.1656 in Dresden),
based the town Johanngeorgenstadt in 1654. His reign was characterized of the Thirty Years War. He fought at the side of Gustav Adolf of Sweden.
John George II.
(* 10.06.1613, † 22.08.1680 in Freiberg),
was occupied in its reign with the economic reconstruction of Saxony after the Thirty Years War and initiated the development of the age of the absolutism in Saxony. Dresden became a cultural center and Leipzig a trade and exhibition city.
John George III.
(* 30.06.1647, † 12.09.1691 in Tübingen),
showed special interest in the military. He got the pointed name "Saxon Mars". He created the standing army in Saxony and planned the building of an institute for cadets. But he was also an promoter of art and religion. In his order the architector Balthasar Permoser continued the development of Dresden.
John George IV.
( * 1668, † 27.04.1694 in Dresden ),
The older brother of Augustus the Strong governed only three years. At the age of 26 he died of smallpox, which he caught from his mistress Sibylle.
Augustus I. the Strong
(* 12.05.1670 in Dresden, †01.02.1733inWarsaw),
Because of his legendary strength he was called August the Strong. Since 1694 as Friedrich August I. Elector of Saxony and since 1697 as August II. King of Poland. To become king of Poland he converted to the catholic faith. His influence on the cultural development was very important in Saxony. His name is connected with many cultural monuments. On his instruction in 1710 was created the porcelain factory in Meissen. In 1722 began the reorganisation and extension of the art collections and the measurement of the Saxon roads. In this time also the first post mile columns were set up. Militarily and economically he rendered however no services. By the high costs of his lavish court life in styles of Ludwig XIV. he left totally wrecked economical conditions in saxony.
Frederick Augustus II.
(* 17.10.1696, † 05.10.1763 in Dresden),
acquired also the Polish king crown with support of Russia and Austria. As a king of Poland he was called August III. His name was connected with the mismanagement and corruption politics of the soon all-powerful prime minister count Heinrich von Bruehl. In the follow-up of his father he continued the cultural efforts, however without participating creative like his father. During his regency important works of the picture gallery were acquired, built the catholic yard church, the Italian opera and the Dresden court experienced their gloss time.
( * 1722, † 17.12.1763 in Dresden),
dismissed 1763 the prime minister Bruehl. A comprehensive state reform begans, which was prepared particularly and carried mental by Thomas von Fritsch. In their implementation similarly as in Prussia and Austria carried out the economic reconstruction of the country.